Dmanisi is a town in Georgia. Located on Mashavera River (a tributary of the Mtkvari) in 30 km to the south-west of the railway station Kazreti. Near Dmanisi, in 10 kilometers to the east, there are the ruins of a large medieval fortified city of Dmanisi. The area of the city - about 25 hectares. The excavations were carried out since 1936. City in VII-XII centuries was the center of the local government of the Arab-Muslim emirate named as Dumany emirate. The city was very important transshipment point along the caravan routes moved by "SILK ROAD”. Has remained three church basilica of VI-VII centuries, which was restored in the early 18th century. Were revealed the city walls, gates, numerous buildings. There were found the treasure of 25 gold and silver ornaments of XII-XIII centuries. On the territory of Dmanisi is located archaeological zone, in 1983 there have been found skeletons of animals belonging to the early Paleolithic period. In the years 1984-1991 have been found stone tools and quite well-preserved lower jaw of a prehistoric man. It turned out that the findings are of 1.7 million years old. In 1999 in Dmanisi has been found skeletons of two fragments of hominids from the same period. Final discovery is completely changed the history of human evolution. The excavations on the territory of Dmanisi are still ongoing. Currently, here there are open-air archaeological museum.